Post On : 21/12/2017
There are four things that can be a limitation of the decomposition of wood components that occur due to heating in the dry distillation process, namely:
But in general and simple process of making activated charcoal consists of three stages:
The process of activation is important to note in addition to the raw materials used. What is meant by activation is a treatment of charcoal that aims to enlarge the pore that is by solving the hydrocarbon bond or oxidizing the surface molecules so that the charcoal changes the properties, both physics and chemistry, the surface area increases and affects the adsorption power. The activation methods commonly used in the manufacture of activated charcoal are:
This activation is the process of disconnecting carbon chains from organic compounds with the use of chemicals. The activator used is chemicals such as: alkali metal hydroxides carbonate salts, chlorides, sulfates, phosphates of alkaline earth metals and in particular ZnCl2, inorganic acids such as H2SO4 and H3PO4.
This activation is the process of breaking the carbon chain of organic compounds with the aid of heat, steam and CO2. Generally the char is heated in a furnace at a temperature of 800-900 ° C. Oxidation with air at low temperatures is an exothermic reaction making it difficult to control it. While heating with steam or CO2 at high temperatures is an endothermic reaction, making it easier to control and most commonly used.
Some raw materials are easier to activate if chlorinated first. It is then carbonized to remove chlorinated hydrocarbons and ultimately activated with steam. It is also possible to treat wood charcoal with sulfur vapor at a temperature of 500 ° C and then desulfurize with H2 to obtain the charcoal with high activity. In some ingredients activated by mixing of chemicals, a second activation is given to the vapor to provide certain physical properties.
With increasing duration of distillation and increasing the temperature of distillation, resulting in smaller amount of charcoal produced, while the distillation and absorption greater. Despite the increasing temperature of the distillation, the activated charcoal is getting better, the temperature limitation is not more than 1000 °C, because it has a lot of ash form to cover the pores that function to adsorb. As a result the active charcoal absorption will decrease. Furthermore the charcoal mixture and activator are heated to a certain temperature and time. The results obtained, tested its absorption capacity to Iodine solution.